Welcome to the Dental Board of California

Regulations - Chapter 1, Article 3.1

TITLE 16. PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL REGULATIONS
DIVISION 10. DENTAL BOARD OF CALIFORNIA
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL LICENSEES
ARTICLE 3.1 RADIATION SAFETY COURSES

Section 1014. Approval of Radiation Safety Courses.
Section 1014.1. Requirements for Radiation Safety Courses

Section 1014. Approval of Radiation Safety Courses. (a) A radiation safety course is one which has as its primary purpose providing theory and clinical application in radiographic techniques. A single standard of care shall be maintained and the board shall approve only those courses which continuously maintain a high quality standard of instruction.
(b) A radiation safety course applying for approval shall submit to the board an application and other required documents and information on forms prescribed by the board. The board may approve or deny approval of any such course. Approval may be granted after evaluation of all components of the course has been performed and the report of such evaluation indicates that the course meets the board's requirements. The board may, in lieu of conducting its own investigation, accept the findings of any commission or accreditation agency approved by the board and adopt those findings as its own.
(c) The board may withdraw its approval of a course at any time, after giving the course provider written notice setting forth its reason for withdrawal and after affording a reasonable opportunity to respond. Approval may be withdrawn for failure to comply with the board's standards or for fraud, misrepresentation or violation of any applicable federal or state laws relating to the operation of radiographic equipment.
(d) The processing times for radiation safety course approval are set forth in Section 1061.

Note: Authority cited: Sections 1614 and 1656, Business and Professions Code. Reference: Section 1656 Business and Professions Code; and Section 106975, Health and Safety Code.

HISTORY
1. New Article 3.1 (Sections 1014 and 1014.1) filed 6-13-85; effective upon filing pursuant to Government Code Section 11346.2(d) (Register 85, No.24).
2. Amendment of subsection (b) and new subsection (d) filed 2-22-88; operative 3-23-88 (Register 88, No. 10).
3. Amendment of subsection (b) and amendment ofNotefiled 10-5-2005; operative 11-4-2005 (Register 2005, No. 40).
Back to Top

Section 1014.1. Requirements for Radiation Safety Courses.
A radiation safety course shall comply with the requirements set forth below in order to secure and maintain approval by the board. The course of instruction in radiation safety and radiography techniques offered by a school or program approved by the board for instruction in dentistry, dental hygiene or dental assisting shall be deemed to be an approved radiation safety course if the school or program has submitted evidence satisfactory to the board that it meets all the requirements set forth below.
(a) Educational Level. The course shall be established at the postsecondary educational level or a level deemed equivalent thereto by the board.
(b) Program Director. The program director, who may also be an instructor, shall actively participate in and be responsible for at least all of the following:
  1. (1) Providing daily guidance of didactic, laboratory and clinical assignments;
  2. (2) Maintaining all necessary records, including but not limited to the following:
  3. (A) Copies of current curriculum, course outline and objectives;
  4. (B) Faculty credentials;
  5. (C) Individual student records, which shall include pre-clinical and clinical evaluations, examinations and copies of all successfully completed radiographic series used toward course completion. Records shall be maintained for at least five years from the date of course completion.
  6. (3) Issuing certificates to each student who has successfully completed the course and maintaining a record of each certificate for at least five years from the date of its issuance;
  7. (4) Transmitting to the board on a form prescribed by the board the name, last four digits of the social security number and, where applicable, license number of each student who has successfully completed the course;
  8. (5) Informing the board of any significant revisions to the curriculum or course outlines.
(c) Faculty. The faculty shall be adequate in number, qualifications and composition and shall be suitably qualified through academic preparation, professional expertise, and/or appropriate training, as provided herein. Each faculty member shall possess the following qualifications:
  1. (1) Hold a valid special permit or valid license as a dentist, registered dental hygienist, registered dental assistant, registered dental assistant in extended functions, registered dental hygienist in extended functions, or registered dental hygienists in alternative practice issued by the board;
  2. (2) All faculty shall have been licensed for a minimum of two years. All faculty shall have the education, background, and occupational experience and/or teaching expertise necessary to perform, teach, and evaluate dental radiographs. All faculty responsible for clinical evaluation shall have completed a two hour methodology course which shall include clinical evaluation criteria, course outline development, process evaluation, and product evaluation;
  3. (3) Shall have either passed the radiation safety examination administered by the board or equivalent licensing examination as a dentist, registered dental hygienist, registered dental assistant, registered dental assistant in extended functions, registered dental hygienist in extended functions, or registered dental hygienists in alternative practice or, on or after January 1, 1985, shall have successfully completed a board approved radiation safety course.
  4. (d) Facilities. There shall be a sufficient number of safe, adequate, and educationally conducive lecture classrooms, radiography operatories, developing or processing facilities, and viewing spaces for mounting, viewing and evaluating radiographs. Adequate sterilizing facilities shall be provided and all disinfection and sterilization procedures specified by board regulations shall be followed.
  5. (1) A radiographic operatory shall be deemed adequate if it fully complies with the California Radiation Control Regulations (Title 17, Cal. Code Regs., commencing with section 30100), is properly equipped with supplies and equipment for practical work and includes for every seven students at least one functioning radiography machine which is adequately filtered and collimated in compliance with Department of Health Services regulations and which is equipped with the appropriate position-indicating devices for each technique being taught.
  6. (2) The developing or processing facility shall be deemed adequate if it is of sufficient size, based upon the number of students, to accommodate students' needs in learning processing procedures and is properly equipped with supplies and equipment for practical work using either manual or automatic equipment.
  7. (3) X-ray areas shall provide protection to patients, students, faculty and observers in full compliance with applicable statutes and regulations.
  8. (e) Program Content. Sufficient time shall be available for all students to obtain laboratory and clinical experience to achieve minimum competence in the various protocols used in the application of dental radiographic techniques.
  9. (1) A detailed course outline shall be provided to the board which clearly states curriculum subject matter and specific instructional hours in the individual areas of didactic, laboratory, and clinical instruction.
  10. (2) General program objectives and specific instructional unit objectives shall be stated in writing, and shall include theoretical aspects of each subject as well as practical application. The theoretical aspects of the program shall provide the content necessary for students to make judgments regarding dental radiation exposure. The course shall assure that students who successfully complete the course can expose, process and evaluate dental radiographs with minimum competence.
  11. (3) Objective evaluation criteria shall be used for measuring student progress toward attainment of specific course objectives. Students shall be provided with specific unit objectives and the evaluation criteria that will be used for all aspects of the curriculum including written, practical and clinical examinations.
  12. (4) Areas of instruction shall include at least the following as they relate to exposure, processing and evaluations of dental radiographs:
  13. (A) Radiation physics and biology
  14. (B) Radiation protection and safety
  15. (C) Recognition of normal anatomical landmarks and abnormal conditions of the oral cavity as they relate to dental radiographs
  16. (D) Radiograph exposure and processing techniques using either manual or automatic methods
  17. (E) Radiograph mounting or sequencing, and viewing, including anatomical landmarks of the oral cavity
  18. (F) Intraoral techniques and dental radiograph armamentaria, including holding devices
  19. (G) Interproximal examination including principles of exposure, methods of retention and evaluation
  20. (H) Intraoral examination including, principles of exposure, methods of retention and evaluation
  21. (I) Identification and correction of faulty radiographs
  22. (J) Supplemental techniques including the optional use of computerized digital radiography
  23. (K) Infection control in dental radiographic procedures
  24. (L) Radiographic record management.

Students may be given the opportunity to obtain credit by the use of challenge examinations and other methods of evaluation.

(f) Laboratory Instruction. Sufficient hours of laboratory instruction shall be provided to ensure that a student successfully completes on an x-ray manikin at least the procedures set forth below. A procedure has been successfully completed only if each radiograph is of diagnostic quality. There shall be no more than 6 students per instructor during laboratory instruction.
  1. (1) Two full mouth periapical series, consisting of at least 18 radiographs each, 4 of which must be bitewings; no more than one series may be completed using computer digital radiographic equipment;
  2. (2) Two bitewing series, consisting of at least 4 radiographs each;
  3. (3) Developing or processing, and mounting or sequencing of exposed radiographs;
  4. (4) Student and instructor written evaluation of radiographs.
(g) Clinical Experience. The course of instruction shall include sufficient clinical experience, as part of an organized program of instruction, to obtain clinical competency in radiographic techniques. There shall be no more than 6 students per instructor during clinical instruction. Clinical instruction shall include clinical experience on four patients with one of the four patients used for the clinical examination. Clinical experience shall include:
  1. (1) Successful completion of a minimum of four full mouth periapical series, consisting of at least 18 radiographs each, 4 of which must be bitewings. Traditional film packets must be double film. No more than three series may be completed using computer digital radiographic equipment. Such radiographs shall be of diagnostic quality. All exposures made on human subjects shall only be made for diagnostic purposes, and shall in no event exceed three (3) exposures per subject. All clinical procedures on human subjects shall be performed under the supervision of a licensed dentist in accordance with section 106975 of the Health and Safety Code.
  2. (2) Developing or processing, and mounting or sequencing of exposed human subject radiographs;
  3. (3) Student and instructor written evaluation of radiographs.
(h) Clinical Facilities. There shall be a written contract of affiliation with each clinical facility utilized by a course. Such contract shall describe the settings in which the clinical training will be received and shall provide that the clinical facility has the necessary equipment and accessories appropriate for the procedures to be performed and that such equipment and accessories are in safe operating condition. Such clinical facilities shall be subject to the same requirements as those specified in subdivision (g).
(i) Length of Course. The program shall be of sufficient duration for the student to develop minimum competence in the radiation safety techniques, but shall in no event be less than 32 clock hours, including at least 8 hours of didactic instruction, at least 12 hours of laboratory instruction, and at least 12 hours of clinical instruction.

(j) Certificates. A certificate shall be issued to each student who successfully completes the course. The certificate shall specify the number of course hours completed. A student shall be deemed to have successfully completed the course if the student has met all the course requirements and has obtained passing scores on both written and clinical examinations.

Note: Authority cited: Sections 1614 and 1656, Business and Professions Code. Reference: Section 1656, Business and Professions Code; and Section 106975, Health and Safety Code.

HISTORY

  1. Amendment of subsections (d), (e) and (g) filed 4-16-90; operative 5-16-90 (Register 90, No. 17).
  2. Amendment of section andNotefiled 10-5-2005; operative 11-4-2005 (Register 2005, No. 40).
Back to Top